Catechism Research – Section J
JESUS CHRIST: The eternal Son of God, who was born of the Virgin Mary, suffered crucifixion and death, rose from the dead and ascended into heaven, and will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead. “Jesus,” which means “God saves” in Hebrew, was the name given to him at the Annunciation; “Christ” is a title which comes from the Greek translation of the Hebrew Messiah and means “anointed” (184 f.; 430, 436; cf. 727).
JOHN THE BAPTIST: The immediate precursor or herald of Jesus. John identified Jesus as the Messianic Lamb of God and baptized him in the Jordan River. With prophetic power, John gave witness to Jesus by his preaching, by the baptism of conversion he announced, and finally by his martyrdom (523, 720).
JUDGMENT: The eternal retribution received by each soul at the moment of death, in accordance with that person’s faith and works (“the particular judgment”) (1021-1022). The “Last Judgment” is God’s triumph over the revolt of evil, after the final cosmic upheaval of this passing world. Preceded by the resurrection of the dead, it will coincide with the second coming of Christ in glory at the end of time, disclose good and evil, and reveal the meaning of salvation history and the providence of God by which justice has triumphed over evil (677-679, 1021, 1038).
JUDGMENT, RASH: A fault against the eighth commandment committed by one who assumes the moral fault of the neighbor to be true without sufficient foundation (2477).
JUSTICE: The cardinal moral virtue which consists in the constant and firm will to give their due to God and to neighbor (1807). Original justice refers to the state of holiness in which God created our first parents (375). Commutative justice, which obliges respect for the rights of the other, is required by the seventh commandment; it is distinguished from legal justice, which concerns what the citizen owes to the community, and distributive justice, which regulates what the community owes its citizens in proportion to their contributions and needs (2411). See Social Justice.
JUSTIFICATION: The gracious action of God which frees us from sin and communicates “the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ” (Rom 3:22). Justification is not only the remission of sins, but also the sanctification and renewal of the interior man (1987-1989).